Update Jan 2: Cambridge Working Group members including Marc Lipsitch and Stanley Plotkin release their comments on upcoming NSABB meeting discussing the risk and benefit analysis report by Gryphon Scientific. More in News
July 14, 2014

Cambridge werkgroep consensus statement over het maken van potentieel pandemische pathogenen

Recente incidenten met pokken, miltvuur en vogelgriep in een aantal vooraanstaande Amerikaanse laboratoria vestigen de aandacht op de feilbaarheid van zelfs de meest veilige laboratoria, en benadrukken de dringende noodzaak tot een grondige herbeoordeling van biologische veiligheid. Dergelijke incidenten komen steeds vaker voor, en treden gemiddeld meer dan twee keer per week op in de universitaire en de overheidslaboratoria in de Verenigde Staten met pathogenen die onder een regeling vallen. Een toevallige besmetting met welk pathogeen dan ook is zorgwekkend. Maar het risico op een ongeluk met nieuw gemaakte "potentiëel pandemische pathogenen" baart ernstige nieuwe zorgen. Het maken van zeer besmettelijke, nieuwe stammen van gevaarlijke virussen in het laboratorium geeft een aanzienlijke toename van risico's, zeker als het influenza betreft maar ook voor andere pathogenen. Een toevallige infectie in een laboratorium kan leiden tot uitbraken die moeilijk of onmogelijk te bestrijden zijn. Historisch gezien besmetten nieuwe stammen van influenza, als ze eenmaal circuleerden onder de menselijke bevolking, een kwart of meer van de wereldbevolking binnen twee jaar.

Voor elk experiment moet de verwachte netto voordelen opwegen tegen de risico’s. Experimenten waarbij potentiëel pandemische pathogenen worden gemaakt moeten worden beperkt totdat er een kwantitatieve, objectieve en geloofwaardige beoordeling is gemaakt van de risico's, van de potentiële voordelen en van de mogelijkheden voor risicobeperking, evenals een vergelijking met veiliger experimentele alternatieven. Een moderne versie van het Asilomar proces, waar wetenschappers werden betrokken bij het voorstellen van regels voor onderzoek naar recombinant DNA, kan een uitgangspunt zijn om te bepalen wat de beste manier is de volksgezondheidsdoelstellingen te bereiken om pandemische ziekten te beteugelen en om het hoogste niveau van veiligheid te verzekeren. Waar mogelijk dienen veiligere manieren te worden nagestreefd dan een aanpak die riskeert een toevallige pandemie te veroorzaken.
Originele Ondertekenaars:
(Founding Members met in Cambridge on July 14 and crafted the statement)
  • Amir Attaran, University of Ottawa
  • Barry Bloom, Harvard School of Public Health
  • Arturo Casadevall, Albert Einstein College of Medicine
  • Richard Ebright, Rutgers University
  • Nicholas G. Evans, University of Pennsylvania
  • David Fisman, University of Toronto Dalla Lana School of Public Health
  • Alison Galvani, Yale School of Public Health
  • Peter Hale, Foundation for Vaccine Research
  • Edward Hammond, Third World Network
  • Michael Imperiale, University of Michigan
  • Thomas Inglesby, UPMC Center for Health Security
  • Marc Lipsitch, Harvard School of Public Health
  • Michael Osterholm, University of Minnesota/CIDRAP
  • David Relman, Stanford University
  • Richard Roberts (Nobel Laureate '93), New England Biolabs
  • Marcel Salathé, Pennsylvania State University
  • Lone Simonsen, George Washington University
  • Silja Vöneky, University of Freiburg Institute of Public Law, Deutscher Ethikrat
Handvest Leden:
(Handvest leden van de Cambridge werkgroep onderschrijven de verklaring)
  • Porter W. Anderson Jr (Lasker laureate '96), Harvard Medical School & University of Rochester
  • Roy Anderson, Imperial College London, UK
  • Rustom Antia, Emory University
  • Ann Arvin, Stanford University School of Medicine
  • Birgitta Åsjö, University of Bergen, Norway
  • John Bartlett, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
  • Patrick Berche, Necker-Enfants Malades Medical School, Paris, France
  • Paul Berg (Nobel laureate '80), Stanford University
  • Pamela Björkman, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena
  • Steven Black, Center for Global Health, Cincinnati Children's Hospital
  • Jesse D. Bloom, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
  • Sebastian Bonhoeffer, ETH Zürich, Switzerland
  • Michel Brahic, Department of Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine
  • Christian Bréchot, Institut Pasteur, Paris
  • Sydney Brenner (Nobel laureate '02)
  • Roger Brent, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
  • John S. Brownstein, Harvard Medical School
  • Donald S. Burke, University of Pittsburgh
  • Dennis Burton , Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla
  • Donald Coen, Harvard Medical School
  • Vittorio Colizzi, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy
  • Larry Corey, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
  • Roel Coutinho, University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands
  • Pascale Cossart, Institut Pasteur, France
  • Clyde S. Crumpacker, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
  • Malcolm Dando, University of Bradford, UK
  • Norman Daniels, Harvard School of Public Health
  • Patrice Debré, Hôpital Pitié Salpetrière, Paris
  • Jonathan A. Eisen, University of California, Davis
  • Santiago Elena, CSIC, Spain
  • Max Essex (Lasker laureate '86), Harvard School of Public Health
  • Stanley Falkow (Lasker laureate '08), Stanford University School of Medicine
  • Michael Farzan, Scripps Research Institute, Miami
  • Marcus W. Feldman, Stanford University
  • Neil M. Ferguson, Imperial College, UK
  • Adam Finn, University of Bristol, UK
  • Christophe Fraser, Imperial College, UK
  • Julio Frenk, Harvard School of Public Health
  • José Gatell, Hospital Clínic, University of Barcelona, Spain
  • Gabriela Gomes, Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciencia, Portugal
  • Eric P. Goosby, University of California San Francisco
  • Nathalie Grandvaux, Université de Montréal, Canada
  • Warner C. Greene, Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, University of California San Francisco
  • Jeanne Guillemin, MIT
  • Willem Hanekom, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and University of Cape Town, South Africa
  • Elisa D. Harris, Center for International and Security Studies at Maryland
  • Eric Harvill, Pennsylvania State University
  • Daniel L. Hartl, Harvard University
  • Donald A. Henderson (Presidential Medal of Freedom '02), University of Pittsburgh
  • Martin S. Hirsch, Harvard Medical School
  • Richard Jackson, University of Cambridge
  • Laura H. Kahn, Princeton University
  • Phyllis Kanki, Harvard School of Public Health
  • Lynn Klotz, Center for Arms Control & Non-Proliferation
  • Keith Klugman, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
  • Roberto Kolter, Harvard Medical School
  • Mathilde Krim, Founding Chairman, amfAR, The Foundation for AIDS Research
  • Leonid Kruglyak, UCLA
  • Richard E. Lenski, Michigan State University
  • Matti Lehtinen, University of Tampere, Finland
  • Bruce R. Levin, Emory University
  • Gunnar Lindahl, Lund University, Sweden
  • W. Ian Lipkin, Columbia University
  • Ian M. Mackay, University of Queensland, Australia
  • Adel A. Mahmoud, Princeton University
  • Rick Malley, Boston Children's Hospital
  • Howard Markel, University of Michigan
  • Robert M. May (former president Royal Society), University of Oxford, UK
  • Mike McCune, University of California, San Francisco
  • Kenneth McIntosh, Boston Children’s Hospital
  • Andrew McMichael, University of Oxford
  • Andreas Meyerhans, ICREA & Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain
  • Julio S. G. Montaner, University of British Columbia
  • Jonathan D. Moreno, University of Pennsylvania
  • Richard Moxon, Oxford University, UK
  • Neal Nathanson, Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania
  • Kathryn Nixdorff, Darmstadt University of Technology, Germany
  • Kate O'Brien, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
  • Paul Offit, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
  • Gérard Orth, Institut Pasteur, France
  • Eli Perencevich, University of Iowa
  • Joshua B. Plotkin, University of Pennsylvania
  • Stanley Plotkin, University of Pennsylvania
  • Peter Piot, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, UK
  • Mark Poznansky, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital
  • Andrew Rambaut, University of Edinburgh, UK
  • Johannes Rath, University of Vienna, Austria
  • Andrew Read, Pennsylvania State University
  • Gili Regev-Yochay, Sheba Medical Center, Israel
  • Félix Rey, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
  • Douglas D. Richman, University of California San Diego
  • Steven L. Salzberg, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
  • Philippe Sansonetti, Institut Pasteur, Paris
  • Mathuram Santosham, Johns Hopkins University
  • Mauro Schechter, Projeto Praca Onze, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
  • Olivier Schwartz, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
  • Jeffrey Shaman, Columbia University
  • Kai Simons, Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology & Genetics, Dresden, Germany
  • Stephen C. Stearns, Yale University
  • Tomoko Steen, Georgetown University Medical School
  • John Steinbruner, University of Maryland
  • Bruce Stillman, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
  • Klaus Stöhr, Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics
  • Amalio Telenti, University of Lausanne, Switzerland
  • Paul Turner, Yale University
  • Robert D. Truog, Harvard Medical School
  • Ross Upshur, University of Toronto, Canada
  • Paul Volberding, AIDS Research Institute, University of California San Francisco
  • Mark Wainberg, McGill University, Montreal, Canada
  • Simon Wain-Hobson, Institut Pasteur, France
  • James D. Watson (Nobel laureate '62)
  • David Weiner, University of Pennsylvania
  • Robin Weiss, University College London, UK
  • Hans Wigzell, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
  • Daniel Wikler, Harvard University
  • Claus O. Wilke, The University of Texas at Austin
  • Rüdiger Wolfrum, Max Planck Institute, Germany
  • Priscilla Yang, Harvard Medical School
  • Moshe Yaniv, Institut Pasteur, France
  • Patrick Yeni, Hôpital Bichat and University of Paris 7 Paris, France
  • Jerome A. Zack, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles
Charter Members who signed the statement online:
  • Andrew Noymer, University of California, Irvine
  • Maimuna S. Majumder, MIT
  • Christopher McCabe, University of Alberta, Canada
  • Mike McCormick, Labwatch
  • Nicole E Basta, Princeton University
  • Steven Riley, Imperial College London
  • Ben Ashby, University of Exeter
  • Gautam I Menon, The Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Chennai, INDIA
  • Ted Cohen, Harvard School of Public Health
  • Toby Ord, Oxford University
  • Sean O hEigeartaigh, University of Oxford
  • Daniel Dewey, University of Oxford
  • Joann Mead, @JoannJMead
  • Christian Althaus, Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine (ISPM), University of Bern, Switzerland
  • Marius Gilbert, Université Libre de Bruxelles
  • Joshua S. Weitz, Georgia Institute of Technology
  • Charles N Haas, Drexel University
  • R. Taylor Raborn, Indiana University
  • Amy Greer, University of Guelph
  • Brett Edwards, University of Bath
  • Antoni Trilla, Hospital Clinic - Univ. of Barcelona
  • David S. Fedson, Sergy Haut, France
  • Hortense Gerardo, Lasell College
  • Joseph Baglieri, Barrister & Solicitor
  • Dawn Kubly, Fort Healthcare
  • Charles R. Stack, University of Illinois at Chicago School of Public Health
  • Lisa Murillo, Los Alamos National Laboratory
  • Anders Sandberg, Oxford University
  • Evan Skowronski, TMG Biosciences
  • Kathleen Gilbert, California Institute of Technology
  • Mukilan D Suresh, SRM University, School of Bioengineering (student)
  • Roberto Anitori, Clark College, WA, USA
  • Andrew Leifer, Princeton University
  • Pankaj Mehta, Boston University
  • Megan Murray, Harvard Medical School
  • Eric S. Starbuck, Department of Health & Nutrition, Save the Children USA
  • Carl T. Bergstrom, Department of Biology, University of Washington
  • Nicola Low, University of Bern, Switzerland
  • Sünje J. Pamp, Technical University of Denmark
  • Andrew Snyder-Beattie, University of Oxford
  • Viktor Müller, Eötvös Loránd University and the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest
  • Tami Lieberman, Harvard Medical School
  • Alan Barbour, University of California Irvine
  • Sven Bergstrom, Umea University, Sweden
  • Sophia Roosth, Assistant Professor of the History of Science, Harvard University
  • Sibel Ascioglu, Hacettpe University, Dept. of Infectious Diseases, Turkey
  • Janet D. Stemwedel, San José State University
  • Fernando Baquero, Department of Microbiology, Ramón y Cajal Institute for Health Research (IRYCIS) Madrid, Spain
  • Carlos S. Moreno, Emory University
  • Sarah Otto, University of British Columbia
  • Richard Levins, Harvard School of Public Health
  • Andrew Tatem, University of Southampton
  • Benjamin Kerr, University of Washington
  • A. David Paltiel, Yale School of Public Health / Yale School of Management
  • Rochelle Walensky, Massachusetts General Hospital
  • John W. Jackson, Brigham and Women's Hospital
  • Julie Parsonnet, Infectious Diseases, Stanford University School of Medicine
  • John McGowan, Emory University Rollins School of Public Health
  • John Quackenbush, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard School of Public Health
  • Rafael Canton, Servicio de Microbiologia. Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal. Madrid. Spain
  • Jane Kim, Harvard School of Public Health
  • Thomas F O'Brien, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA
  • Simon Levin, Princeton University
  • James Lloyd-Smith, UCLA
  • Andrew Yates, University of Glasgow
  • Richard C. Larson, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
  • Victor DeGruttola, Harvard University
  • Melinda M. Pettigrew, Yale School of Public Health
  • Marc D. Natter, Harvard Medical School
  • Ramanan Laxminarayan, Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy, New Delhi
  • Cynthia Schuck-Paim, Origem Scientifica
  • Emma McBryde, University of Melbourne & Victorian Infectious Diseases Service, Doherty Institute
  • Robin Bush, University of California, Irvine
  • Pieter Trapman, Stockholm University
  • Lumi Viljakainen, University of Oulu
  • Isabelle Magnoli, Université catholique de Louvain
  • Jeremy Van Cleve, Duke University
  • Francisco Dionisio, University of Lisbon
  • Daniel Wilson, University of Oxford
  • Amy Hurford, Memorial University of Newfoundland
  • Sergios-Orestis Kolokotronis, Fordham University
  • Pedro Silva, University of Lisbon, Portugal
  • Oscar E. Gaggiotti, University of St Andrews, UK
  • Richard Edwards, University of New South Wales
  • Emilia Vynnycky, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, UK
  • Martin Kulldorff, Harvard Medical School
  • Erik F. Y. Hom, University of Mississippi
  • John Mekalanos, Harvard Medical School
  • Stephen W. Schaeffer, Pennsylvania State University
  • Christina Davy, Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario, Canada
  • Clark Freifeld, Boston Children's Hospital
  • David A Harmin, Harvard Medical School
  • Anne D. Yoder, Duke University
  • Nicholas G Reich, University of Massachusetts - Amherst
  • Gerald Learn, University of Pennsylvania
  • Pleuni Pennings, San Francisco State University
  • Zachary A Szpiech, University of California, San Francisco
  • Stan Finkelstein, MIT/Harvard Medical School
  • Paul Avillach, Harvard Medical School
  • Alain-jacques Valleron, Inserm. Paris, France
  • Ellen L. Simms, University of California, Berkeley
  • Anahi Espindola, University of Idaho
  • Claudio Jose Struchiner, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Brazil
  • Jan Medlock, Oregon State University
  • Maarten Vonhof, Western Michigan University
  • Heather Douglas, University of Waterloo
  • Michael Höhle, Department of Mathematics, Stockholm University
  • Joy Scaria, Cornell University
  • Preben Aavitsland, Epidemi, Kristiansand
  • Fernando Gonzalez-Candelas, University of Valencia, Spain
  • Dr. Sameeh Ghazal, King Fahad Medical City
  • William J. Etges, University of Arkansas
  • Sadia Shakoor, Aga Khan University
  • Angela Hancock, Max F. Perutz Labs, University of Vienna
  • Michael Merson, Duke University
  • Donald R. Olson, New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene
  • Robert Gordon White, Carleton University
  • Paul Schmid-Hempel, ETH Zurich
  • Matt Keeling, University of Warwick
  • Victoria Shaffer, Infection Preventionist; CHWC, Bryan, Ohio
  • Matthew J. Brown, University of Texas at Dallas
  • Joel L. Sachs, University of California - Riverside
  • Jacques Dubochet, University of Lausanne (retired)
  • François-Xavier Weill, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
  • Rodrigo Angerami, State University of Campinas/UNICAMP
  • Omar Cornejo, Washington State University
  • Wladimir J. Alonso, Origem Scientific Consultancy
  • Jacob-S. Seeler, Institut Pasteur, Paris
  • Sarah Cobey, University of Chicago
  • Joshua Metlay, Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School
  • Barbara E. Giles, Umea University, Sweden
  • Brigitte Autran, University Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris
  • Nicholas S Kelley, University of Minnesota
  • Jean-Michel Guillon, University of Paris Sud, France
  • Jon Zelner, Princeton University, Dept. of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
  • William C. Miller, UNC - Chapel Hill
  • Katia Koelle, Duke University
  • Thomas W. Jeffries, University of Wisconsin - Madison
  • Harry Greenberg, Stanford University
  • Romain Gallet, INRA - Montpellier (France)
  • Allan Hance, INSERM, Paris, France
  • Simon Fellous, INRA - CBGP, France
  • Tatyana Novossiolova, University of Bradford
  • Patricia Baldacci, Institut Pasteur
  • Godwin Wilson, Hamad Medical Corporation, Qatar
  • Ralf Koebnik, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement
  • Elaine Nsoesie, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School
  • Nicolas Voirin, Hospices Civils de Lyon
  • Mariet Feltkamp, Leiden University Medical Center
  • Conor Browne, Queen's University Belfast
  • Quentin Sattentau, University of Oxford
  • Michael Costa, Abt Associates
  • Jonathan A. Cooper, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Resarch Center
  • Andrew Lakoff, University of Southern California
  • Peter V. Markov, Institut Pasteur
  • Doug Cyr
  • bracha rager, faculty of health sciences, ben gurion univ. Israel
  • Mark Eisler, University of Bristol
  • Miles Davenport, UNSW Australia
  • David Bofinger, Grand Canyon Univerity - Graduate Student -Psychology
  • Daniel Leifer, UC Davis School of Medicine
  • Benjamin de Bivort, Harvard University
  • James Lyons-Weiler, PhD, Ebola Rapid Assay Development Consortium
  • Camillo Di Cicco, University of Rome
  • Roberto Bruzzone, HKU-Pasteur Research Pole
  • Anders Huitfeldt, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health
  • Viktoriya Krakovna, Harvard University PhD student, Future of Life Institute cofounder
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  • Emma Kowal, Harvard University
  • Ales Flidr, Harvard College
  • Max Kesin, Professional
  • Dr. Roman V. Yampolskiy, University of Louisville
  • Robert J. Taylor, Sage Analytica, Bethesda Maryland
  • Niel Bowerman, Future of Humanity Institute, University of Oxford
  • Nancy Connell, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School
  • Kathleen Burns, Sciencecorps
  • Louis Kang, Harvard University/MIT
  • Thomas Choate, Air
  • Aaron Supple, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
Alle betrekkingen dienen slechts ter identificatie en impliceren geen institutionele onderschrijving.